List of Buddhist Rock-Cut Sites in India

The Buddhist heritage of India is profoundly reflected in its multitude of rock-cut sites. This post aims to compile a working list of such sites, specifically focusing on the Buddhist tradition. It’s important to note that this list is an ongoing project and not exhaustive. The dynamic nature of archaeological discoveries means that newer or less-known sites frequently emerge in regional media and social media reports. However, due to the vast scope of this subject, I may not be aware of all such developments.

List of Centrally Protected Monuments (CPMs) with Buddhist Rock-Cut Architecture in India

S.N.ASI CircleStateDistrictArchaeological Site and Locality
 1AmaravatiAndhra PradeshEast GodavariPandavula or Pandavulakonda Caves at Kapavaram
 2AmaravatiAndhra PradeshVishakhapatnamBojjanna Konda / Lingala Konda Caves at Sankaram
 3AmaravatiAndhra PradeshWest GodavariCaves at Dharmalingesvarasvami hill
 4AmaravatiAndhra PradeshWest GodavariGuntupalle Caves
 5PatnaBiharJehanabadBarabar and Nagarjuni Hills, Caves at
 6PatnaBiharRajgirSaptaparni Caves
 7PatnaBiharRajgirSwarn Bhandar Cave
 8RaipurChhattisgarhSargujaSitabengra & Jogimara Caves, Ramgarh Hill
 9RajkotGujaratBhavnagarTalaja Caves
 10RajkotGujaratJunagadhGirnar Hill, Baba Pyare Caves
 11RajkotGujaratJunagadhGirnar Hill, Khapra Kodiya Caves
 12RajkotGujaratJunagadhGirnar Hill, Uparkot Caves
 13RajkotGujaratRajkotDhank Caves, near Upleta
 14BhopalMadhya PradeshDharBagh Caves
 15BhopalMadhya PradeshDharLohani Caves, Mandu
 16BhopalMadhya PradeshMandasaurDhamnar Caves 1-51
 17JabalpurMadhya PradeshHoshangabadPandav Caves in Panchamarhi
 18AurangabadMaharashtraAurangabadAjanta Caves
 19AurangabadMaharashtraAurangabadAurangabad Caves
 20AurangabadMaharashtraAurangabadEllora Caves 1-12?
 21AurangabadMaharashtraAurangabadPitalkhora Caves near Kannad
 22AurangabadMaharashtraNasikAnkai Caves
 23AurangabadMaharashtraNasikPandav Lena Caves near Pathardi
 24MumbaiMaharashtraKolhapurPohala Caves
 25MumbaiMaharashtraMumbai SuburbanKanheri Caves
 26MumbaiMaharashtraMumbai SuburbanKondivite/Mahakali Caves
 27MumbaiMaharashtraMumbai SuburbanMandapeshwar Cave, Phase I
 28MumbaiMaharashtraPalgharBarad / Bahrot Caves near Khunavada
 29MumbaiMaharashtraPuneBedsa Caves
 30MumbaiMaharashtraPuneBhaja Caves
 31MumbaiMaharashtraPuneJunnar, Ganesh Pahad / Lenyadri Caves
 32MumbaiMaharashtraPuneJunnar, Manmodi Hill: Ambika Caves
 33MumbaiMaharashtraPuneJunnar, Manmodi Hill: Bhimashankar Caves
 34MumbaiMaharashtraPuneJunnar, Manmodi Hill: Bhutalinga Caves
 35MumbaiMaharashtraPuneJunnar, Shivaneri Hill Caves
 36MumbaiMaharashtraPuneJunnar, Tulja Hill Caves
 37MumbaiMaharashtraPuneKarla Caves
 38MumbaiMaharashtraPuneNaneghat/Nana Pass Caves
 39MumbaiMaharashtraPuneShelarwadi Caves
 40MumbaiMaharashtraRaigadAmbivli Caves
41 MumbaiMaharashtraRaigadElephanta Caves 2-4 (originally Buddhist?)
 42MumbaiMaharashtraRaigadGomashi Caves
 43MumbaiMaharashtraRaigadKhadsamla Caves near Nenavali
 44MumbaiMaharashtraRaigadKol Caves
 45MumbaiMaharashtraRaigadKondane Caves
 46MumbaiMaharashtraRaigadKuda Caves
 47MumbaiMaharashtraRaigadPala/Gandhar Pale Caves near Mahad
 48MumbaiMaharashtraRaigadPeth Caves near Kotali Fort
 49MumbaiMaharashtraRaigadThanala Caves near Nadsur
 50MumbaiMaharashtraRatnagiriPanhalekazi/Ganesh Lena Caves near Dapoli
 51MumbaiMaharashtraSataraJakhinwadi/Agashiva Caves near Karad
 52NagpurMaharashtraAkolaPatur Caves
 53NagpurMaharashtraChandrapurVijasan/Pandava Caves near Bhandak
 54BhubaneshwarOdishaKhurdaUdayagiri & Khandagiri Caves
 55JaipurRajasthanJhalawarBinnayaga (Dag) Caves
 56JaipurRajasthanJhalawarHatiyagor Caves
 57JaipurRajasthanJhalawarKolvi (Dag) Caves
Source: ASI website

List of Buddhist Cave Sites in India Under State Archaeology Departments

S.No.StateDistrictSite and locality
1Andhra PradeshKurnoolKotturu
2Andhra PradeshVizianagaramBodhikonda, near Ramateertham
3GoaNorth GoaLamgaon, Bicholim
4GoaNorth GoaSiddhanatha, Surla
5GoaSouth GoaRivona, Sanguem
6GujaratGir SomnathPrabhas Patan
7GujaratKutchSiyot, Lakhpat
8GujaratPatanSana Vakiya, Sana Dungar
9GujaratPorbandarKadiya Dungar
10GujaratRajkotKhambhalida, N-E of Jetpur
11LadakhLehSaspol Caves
12Madhya PradeshHoshangabadSalbardi
13Madhya PradeshRatlamKhejadiya Bhop
14Madhya PradeshSehoreSaru – Maru, Panguraria
15MaharashtraAurangabadSutonda, near Banoti
17MaharashtraMumbaiKerumata, Navi Mumbai airport (destroyed)
19MaharashtraNagpurBhuyari, Nagpur
20MaharashtraNandedGhatotkacha near Janjala
21MaharashtraNandedMahur, near Mahurgad
22MaharashtraNashikBanoti / Dhareshwar, Soegaon
23MaharashtraOsmanabadDharashiva, N-W of Osmanabad
24MaharashtraOsmanabadLachunda, near Osmanabad
25MaharashtraPalgharJivadani temple, near Virar
26MaharashtraPuneBhandara, west of Chakan
28MaharashtraPuneDongrai, near Agashiva Hills
29MaharashtraPuneGhorawadi / Ghorwadeshwar, Talegaon Dabhade
32MaharashtraPuneShilāṇé, near Karla
33MaharashtraPuneUkasan, off Kamshet
34MaharashtraPuneYelghol, south of Kamshet
35MaharashtraRaigadBamnoli, Mangaon
36MaharashtraRaigadLonad, near Mumbai
37MaharashtraRaigadMrugagad, Kurvande
39MaharashtraRaigadRajwada, Khireshwar
41MaharashtraSataraKaudanya, near Agashiva Hills
42MaharashtraSataraPatan, south of Karla
44MaharashtraSataraYerphale, near Patan
45MaharashtraThaneWaghdevi, Chinchoti
48Uttar PradeshLalitpurDeogarh rock shelter, Lalitpur
Source: compiled by the author

The above list is a work in progress. It is not incomplete. Many entries may be missing. Some errors might also be there. I invite you to contribute to this evolving list. If you can spot an error, kindly let me know in the comments section below. If you are aware of any Buddhist rock-cut sites, especially those that are obscure or less-known, please share your knowledge in the comments section below. To ensure the information is as useful as possible, include the following details:

  1. Site Location: Please mention the specific location of the site, including coordinates if available.
  2. Accessibility: Information about the nearest locality, post office, and district can be very helpful.
  3. Photographs: If you can, please share images of the sites. Visual documentation is invaluable for both academic study and general appreciation.

Your contributions will not only enrich this list but also aid in the broader understanding and preservation of Buddhist archaeological heritage in India.

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